John von Neumann

Hungarian-American mathematician and polymath

** Date of Birth: **28-Dec-1903

** Place of Birth: **Budapest, Hungary

**Date of Death: **08-Feb-1957

**Profession: **engineer, computer scientist, physicist, mathematician, economist, inventor, chemist, university teacher, nuclear physicist

**Nationality:** Hungary, United States

**Zodiac Sign: **Capricorn

- John von Neumann (; Hungarian: Neumann JÃ¡nos Lajos, pronounced ['n?jm?n 'ja?no? 'l?jo?]; December 28, 1903 â€“ February 8, 1957) was a Hungarian-American mathematician, physicist, computer scientist, and polymath.
- Von Neumann was generally regarded as the foremost mathematician of his time and said to be "the last representative of the great mathematicians"; who integrated both pure and applied sciences. He made major contributions to a number of fields, including mathematics (foundations of mathematics, functional analysis, ergodic theory, representation theory, operator algebras, geometry, topology, and numerical analysis), physics (quantum mechanics, hydrodynamics, and quantum statistical mechanics), economics (game theory), computing (Von Neumann architecture, linear programming, self-replicating machines, stochastic computing), and statistics. He was a pioneer of the application of operator theory to quantum mechanics in the development of functional analysis, and a key figure in the development of game theory and the concepts of cellular automata, the universal constructor and the digital computer. He published over 150 papers in his life: about 60 in pure mathematics, 60 in applied mathematics, 20 in physics, and the remainder on special mathematical subjects or non-mathematical ones.
- His last work, an unfinished manuscript written while he was in hospital, was later published in book form as The Computer and the Brain. His analysis of the structure of self-replication preceded the discovery of the structure of DNA.
- In a short list of facts about his life he submitted to the National Academy of Sciences, he stated, "The part of my work I consider most essential is that on quantum mechanics, which developed in GÃ¶ttingen in 1926, and subsequently in Berlin in 1927â€“1929.
- Also, my work on various forms of operator theory, Berlin 1930 and Princeton 1935â€“1939; on the ergodic theorem, Princeton, 1931â€“1932." During World War II, von Neumann worked on the Manhattan Project with theoretical physicist Edward Teller, mathematician Stanislaw Ulam and others, problem solving key steps in the nuclear physics involved in thermonuclear reactions and the hydrogen bomb.
- He developed the mathematical models behind the explosive lenses used in the implosion-type nuclear weapon, and coined the term "kiloton" (of TNT), as a measure of the explosive force generated. After the war, he served on the General Advisory Committee of the United States Atomic Energy Commission, and consulted for a number of organizations, including the United States Air Force, the Army's Ballistic Research Laboratory, the Armed Forces Special Weapons Project, and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.
- As a Hungarian Ã©migrÃ©, concerned that the Soviets would achieve nuclear superiority, he designed and promoted the policy of mutually assured destruction to limit the arms race.

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