Fat?-?Ali Šâh Qâjâr (Persian: ?????????? ??????; var.
Fathalishah, Fathali Shah, Fath Ali Shah; 25 September 1772 – 23 October 1834) was the second Shah of Qajar Iran.
He reigned from 17 June 1797 until his death.
His reign saw the irrevocable ceding of Iran's northern territories in the Caucasus, comprising what is nowadays Georgia, Dagestan, Azerbaijan, and Armenia, to the Russian Empire following the Russo-Persian Wars of 1804–13 and 1826–28 and the resulting treaties of Gulistan and Turkmenchay.
Historian Joseph M.
Upton says that he "is famous among Persians for three things: his exceptionally long beard, his wasp-like waist, and his progeny."At the end of his reign, his difficult economic problems and military and technological liabilities took Iran to the verge of governmental disintegration, which was quickened by a consequent struggle for the throne after his death.