Rudolph William Louis Giuliani (, Italian: [d?u'lja?ni]; born May 28, 1944) is an American politician, attorney, and public speaker who served as the 107th Mayor of New York City from 1994 to 2001.
He currently acts as an attorney to President Donald Trump.
Politically first a Democrat, then an Independent in the 1970s, and a Republican since the 1980s, Giuliani served as United States Associate Attorney General from 1981 to 1983.
That year he became the United States Attorney for the Southern District of New York, holding the position until 1989.When Giuliani took office as Mayor of New York City, he appointed a new police commissioner, William Bratton, who applied the broken windows theory of urban decay, which holds that minor disorders and violations create a permissive atmosphere which leads to further and more serious crimes which can threaten the safety of a city; to prevent major crime, the theory holds, the police should enforce seemingly minor "quality-of-life" laws such as those outlawing public drinking, littering, and jay-walking.
Within several years, Giuliani was widely credited for making major improvements in the city's quality of life and lowering the rate of violent crimes.
While Giuliani was still Mayor, he ran for the United States Senate in 2000; however, he withdrew from the race upon learning of his prostate cancer diagnosis.
Giuliani was named Time magazine's Person of the Year for 2001, and was given an honorary knighthood in 2002 by Queen Elizabeth II for his leadership in the aftermath of the September 11 terrorist attacks in 2001.
In 2002, Giuliani founded Giuliani Partners (consulting), acquired and later sold Giuliani Capital Advisors (investment banking), and joined a Texas firm while opening a Manhattan office for the firm renamed Bracewell & Giuliani (legal services).
Giuliani sought the Republican Party's 2008 presidential nomination, and was considered the early front runner in the race, before withdrawing from the race to endorse the eventual nominee, John McCain.
Giuliani was considered a potential candidate for New York Governor in 2010 and for the Republican presidential nomination in 2012.
Both times, he declined to run, and instead remained in the business sector.In April 2018, Giuliani became one of Trump's personal lawyers.
Since then, he has frequently appeared in the media in defense of Trump.
As of October 1, 2019, Giuliani hired former Watergate prosecutor Jon Sale to represent him in the House Intelligence Committee's impeachment investigation.
The committee also issued a subpoena to Giuliani asking him to release documents related to the Ukraine scandal.
The New York Times reported on October 11, 2019, that the United States Attorney for the Southern District of New York, which Giuliani had once led, was investigating him for violating lobbying laws related to his activities in Ukraine.
The following month, Bloomberg News reported that the investigation could extend to bribery of foreign officials or conspiracy, and The Wall Street Journal reported Giuliani was being investigated for a possible profit motive in a Ukrainian natural gas venture.
The Journal later reported the investigation may also include numerous other charges, including money laundering, obstruction of justice, conspiracy to defraud the United States, making false statements to the federal government and mail/wire fraud.
Giuliani has denied having any interest in a Ukrainian natural gas venture.U.S.
ambassador to the European Union Gordon Sondland testified that Trump delegated American foreign policy on Ukraine to Giuliani.
The late 2019 impeachment inquiry against Donald Trump centered heavily part around Giuliani's actions in and with respect to Ukraine.
Giuliani's name was mentioned more than any other apart from Trump in the testimony of dozens of public servants as well as the December reports of the House Intelligence Committee.
Some legal commentators and former prosecutors have suggested Giuliani's actions in Ukraine and elsewhere may have violated the Logan Act.