Lazar Moiseyevich Kaganovich (Russian: ??´???? ?????´???? ??????´???; 22 November [O.S.
10 November] 1893 – 25 July 1991) was a Stalinist Soviet politician and administrator and one of the main associates of Joseph Stalin.
He is known for helping Stalin seize power, for his role in organizing, planning and supervising the famine in Soviet Ukraine, and for his harsh treatment and execution of those deemed threats to Stalin's regime.
He was project manager and led the original design team of the Moscow Metro, and Moscow's Metro was named after him until 1955.At his death in 1991, he was the last surviving Old Bolshevik.
The Soviet Union itself outlived him by a mere five months before it finally disintegrated.