John Marshall, Date of Birth, Place of Birth, Date of Death

    

John Marshall

fourth Chief Justice of the United States

Date of Birth: 24-Sep-1755

Place of Birth: Germantown, Virginia, United States

Date of Death: 06-Jul-1835

Profession: judge, lawyer, politician, jurist, diplomat

Nationality: United States

Zodiac Sign: Libra


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About John Marshall

  • John Marshall (September 24, 1755 – July 6, 1835) was an American politician and lawyer who served as the fourth Chief Justice of the United States from 1801 to 1835.
  • Marshall remains the longest-serving chief justice and fourth-longest serving justice in Supreme Court history, and he is widely regarded as one of the most influential justices to ever sit on the Supreme Court.
  • Prior to joining the Supreme Court, Marshall served as the United States Secretary of State under President John Adams. Marshall was born in Fauquier County, Virginia in 1755.
  • After the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War, he joined the Continental Army, serving in numerous battles.
  • During the later stages of the war, he was admitted to the state bar and won election to the Virginia House of Delegates.
  • Marshall favored the ratification of the United States Constitution, and he played a major role in Virginia's ratification of that document.
  • At the request of President Adams, Marshall traveled to France in 1797 to help bring an end to attacks on American shipping.
  • In what became known as the XYZ Affair, the government of France refused to open negotiations unless the United States agreed to pay bribes.
  • After returning to the United States, Marshall won election to the United States House of Representatives and emerged as a leader of the Federalist Party in Congress.
  • He was appointed secretary of state in 1800 after a cabinet shake-up, becoming an important figure in the Adams administration. In 1801, Adams appointed Marshall to the Supreme Court.
  • Marshall quickly emerged as the key figure on the court, due in large part to his personal influence with the other justices.
  • Under his leadership, the court moved away from seriatim opinions, instead issuing a single majority opinion that elucidated a clear rule.
  • The 1803 case of Marbury v.
  • Madison presented the first major case heard by the Marshall Court.
  • In his opinion for the court, Marshall upheld the principle of judicial review, whereby courts could strike down federal and state laws if they conflicted with the Constitution.
  • Marshall's holding avoided direct conflict with the executive branch, which was led by Democratic-Republican President Thomas Jefferson.
  • By establishing the principle of judicial review while avoiding an inter-branch confrontation, Marshall helped implement the principle of separation of powers and cement the position of the American judiciary as an independent and co-equal branch of government. After 1803, many of the major decisions issued by the Marshall Court confirmed the supremacy of the federal government and the federal Constitution over the states.
  • In Fletcher v.
  • Peck and Dartmouth College v.
  • Woodward, the court invalidated state actions because they violated the Contract Clause.
  • The court's decision in McCulloch v.
  • Maryland upheld the constitutionality of the Second Bank of the United States and established the principle that the states could not tax federal institutions.
  • The cases of Martin v.
  • Hunter's Lessee and Cohens v.
  • Virginia established that the Supreme Court could hear appeals from state courts in both civil and criminal matters.
  • Marshall's opinion in Gibbons v.
  • Ogden established that the Commerce Clause bars states from restricting navigation.
  • In the case of Worcester v.
  • Georgia, Marshall held that the Georgia criminal statute that prohibited non-Native Americans from being present on Native American lands without a license from the state was unconstitutional.
  • Marshall died in 1835, and Jackson appointed Roger Taney as his successor.

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