Klaus Friedrich Roth (29 October 1925 – 10 November 2015) was a German-born British mathematician who won the Fields Medal for proving Roth's theorem on the Diophantine approximation of algebraic numbers.
Roth moved to England as a child in 1933 to escape the Nazis, and was educated at the University of Cambridge and University College London, finishing his doctorate in 1950.
He taught at University College London until 1966, when he took a chair at Imperial College London.
He retired in 1988.
Beyond his work on Diophantine approximation, Roth made major contributions to the theory of progression-free sets in arithmetic combinatorics and to the theory of irregularities of distribution.
He was also known for his research on sums of powers, on the large sieve, on the Heilbronn triangle problem, and on square packing in a square.
With Heini Halberstam he was the author of a book on integer sequences.
As well as winning the Fields Medal, Roth was a winner of the De Morgan Medal and the Sylvester Medal, and a Fellow of the Royal Society.