Aníbal Carmelo Troilo (July 11, 1914 – May 18, 1975 in Buenos Aires, Argentina) was an Argentine tango musician.
Troilo was a bandoneon player, composer, arranger, and bandleader in Argentina.
His orquesta típica was among the most popular with social dancers during the golden age of tango (1940-1955), but he changed to a concert sound by the late 1950s.
Troilo's orchestra is best known for its instrumentals, though he also recorded with many well-known vocalists such as Francisco Fiorentino, Alberto Marino, Floreal Ruiz, Roberto Goyeneche, Raúl Berón, and Edmundo Rivero.
His rhythmic instrumentals and the recordings he made with vocalist Francisco Fiorentino from 1941–43, known as milongas, were some of the favourites in tango salons.
The renowned bandoneonist Astor Piazzolla played in and arranged for Troilo's orquesta típica during the period of 1939-1944.