Fernando Wood (June 14, 1812 – February 14, 1881) was an American politician of the Democratic Party and the 73rd and 75th mayor of New York City; he also served as a United States Representative (1841–1843, 1863–1865, and 1867–1881) and as Chairman of the Committee on Ways and Means in both the 45th and 46th Congress (1877–1881).
A successful shipping merchant who became Grand Sachem of the political machine known as Tammany Hall, Wood first served in Congress in 1841.
In 1854 he was elected Mayor of New York City.
Reelected in 1860 after an electoral loss in 1857 by a narrow majority of 3,000 votes, Wood evinced support for the Confederate States during the American Civil War, suggesting to the New York City Council that New York City secede from the U.S.
and declare itself a free city in order to continue its profitable cotton trade with the Confederacy.
Wood's Democratic machine was concerned with maintaining the revenues (which depended on Southern cotton) that fed the system of patronage.
Following his service as mayor, Wood returned to the United States Congress.
He was one of the main opponents of the Thirteenth Amendment.