Herberts Cukurs (17 May 1900 in Liepaja, Russian Empire – 23 February 1965 in Shangrilá, Uruguay) was a Latvian aviator.
He was a member of the Arajs Kommando, which was involved in the mass murder of Latvian Jews as part of the Holocaust.
He never stood trial, though there are eyewitness accounts linking Cukurs to war crimes.
He was assassinated by operatives of the Israeli intelligence service (Mossad) in 1965.
The Mossad agent "Künzle", who killed Cukurs, and the journalist Gad Shimron wrote a book, The Execution of the Hangman of Riga in which they called Cukurs the "Butcher of Riga", and the term was later picked up by several sources.