(November 3, 1845 – May 19, 1921), was an American politician and jurist from Louisiana.
He was a United States Senator and the ninth Chief Justice of the United States.
He served on the Supreme Court of the United States from 1894 to 1921.
He is best known for formulating the Rule of Reason standard of antitrust law.
Born in Lafourche Parish, Louisiana, White practiced law in New Orleans after graduating from the University of Louisiana.
His father, Edward Douglass White Sr., was the 10th Governor of Louisiana and a Whig US Representative.
White fought for the Confederacy during the Civil War, and was captured in 1865.
After the war, White won election to the Louisiana State Senate and served on the Louisiana Supreme Court.
As a member of the Democratic Party, White represented Louisiana in the United States Senate from 1891 to 1894.
In 1894, President Grover Cleveland appointed White as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.
In 1910, President William Howard Taft elevated him to the position of Chief Justice.
The appointment surprised many contemporaries, as Taft was a member of the Republican Party.
White served as Chief Justice until his death in 1921, when he was succeeded by Taft.
He was generally a conservative member of the court.
He sided with the Supreme Court majority in Plessy v.
Ferguson, which upheld the legality of state segregation to provide "separate but equal" public facilities in the United States, despite protections of the Fourteenth Amendment to equal protection of the laws.
In one of several challenges to Southern states' grandfather clauses, used to disfranchise African-American voters at the turn of the century, he wrote for a unanimous court in Guinn v.
United States, which struck down many Southern states' grandfather clauses.
He also wrote the opinion in the Selective Draft Law Cases, which upheld the constitutionality of conscription.