Arthur Augustus Calwell KCSG (28 August 1896 – 8 July 1973) was an Australian politician who served as the leader of the Labor Party from 1960 to 1967.
He led the party to three federal elections without success.
Calwell grew up in Melbourne and attended St Joseph's College.
After leaving school, he began working as a clerk for the Victorian state government.
He became involved in the labour movement as an officeholder in the public-sector trade union.
Before entering parliament, Calwell held various positions in the Labor Party's organisation wing, serving terms as state president and as a member of the federal executive.
He was elected to the House of Representatives at the 1940 federal election, standing in the Division of Melbourne.
After the 1943 election, Calwell was elevated to cabinet as Minister for Information, overseeing government censorship and propaganda during World War II.
When Ben Chifley became prime minister in 1945, he was also made Minister for Immigration.
He oversaw the creation of Australia's expanded post-war immigration scheme, at the same time strictly enforcing the White Australia policy.
In 1951, Calwell was elected deputy leader of the Labor Party in place of H.
Evatt, who had succeeded to the leadership upon Chifley's death.
The two clashed on a number of occasions over the following decade, which encompassed the 1955 party split.
In 1960, Evatt retired and Calwell was chosen as his successor, thus becoming Leader of the Opposition.
Calwell and the Labor Party came close to victory at the 1961 election, gaining 15 seats and finishing only two seats shy of a majority.
However, those gains were wiped out at the 1963 election.
Calwell was one of the most prominent opponents of Australia's involvement in the Vietnam War, a stance that was not electorally popular at the time.
In 1966, Calwell survived a leadership challenge from his deputy Gough Whitlam, survived an assassination attempt with minor injuries, and finally led his party to a landslide defeat at the 1966 election, winning less than one-third of the total seats.
He was 70 years old by that point, and resigned the leadership a few months later.
He remained in parliament until the 1972 election, which saw Whitlam become prime minister, and died the following year.