Paul Sidney Martin (born November 22, 1898 in Chicago - died January 20, 1974) was an American anthropologist and archaeologist.
A lifelong associate of the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago, Martin studied pre-Columbian cultures of the Southwestern United States.
He excavated more than a hundred archaeological sites, starting with the groundbreaking seven-season expedition to the Montezuma County, Colorado in 1930–1938.
His research passed through three distinct stages: field archaeology of the Anasazi Pueblo cultures of Colorado in the 1930s, studies of the Mogollon culture in 1939–1955 and the New Archaeology studies in 1956–1972.
Martin collected more than 585 thousand archaeological artifacts although his own methods of handling these relics were at times destructive and unacceptable even by the standards of his time.Martin was elected President of the Society for American Archaeology and awarded the 1968 Alfred Vincent Kidder Award of the American Anthropological Association.
He trained over fifty professional archaeologists and published more than 200 academic and popular papers.
Martin's field expeditions redefined the role of museum anthropologists from the search for exhibits to research-driven field studies.